Soybean cultivation: soybean harvesting period, organic cultivation, pictures of the plant, when to harvest and advice for care.
Soy can be grown in any location with a temperate or subtropical climate. The best yield is obtained with summers with temperatures between 20 and 30 ° C. Average temperatures between 30 and 40 ° C are equally tolerated.
Soybean cultivation in Italy
Theresoybean cultivation it has been well established in Italy since the 1980s. Today again,grow soy in Italy, seems to be a strategy thatagreesfor farms. Theresoy is a very profitable product:
- requires low production costs
- it maintains a particularly high market value
THEproblemsto be addressed in thecultivationconcern the water supply:soybean cropsthey need a lot of water, so much so that if the natural water supply is not used (as is the case in Northern Italy), the costs for irrigation interventions would far exceed the revenues.
For the water needs of thesoybean cultivation, this practice is made possible only in the North of Italy.
Is growing soy worthwhile?How much does it cost to grow soy
Based on the soy cultivation model adopted in Emilia Romagna, the direct costs of cultivation amount to 874 euros per hectare. Of this sum, the highest expenditure is linked to the sowing and harvesting phase.
The low costs of soybean cultivation are also linked to the lack of need for nitrogen fertilization.
To the 874 euros of direct costs must be added 502 euros of indirect costs (maintenance, taxes, administrative expenses) with a total expenditure of 1,376 euros per hectare cultivated. From this sum, however, we must subtract the so-called "Single Award "provided by the European Union which amounts to 330 euros per hectare. The costs to start a soybean cultivation (ranging from seed to harvest) amount to 1046 euros per hectare. Given the high cost of selling soybeans, this cultivation is suitable for agricultural activity.
Sowing of soybeans
The sowing period takes into account the soil temperature: sowing is carried out when the soil temperatures do not drop below 10 ° C. Sowing takes place at a depth of 2 - 4 cm. For ripening group I varieties, an investment of 35-40 seeds / m2 is recommended, while for zero-type varieties the density can increase to 45-50 seeds. The distance between the rows of 45-50 cm.
It is true that soy does not need nitrogen-based fertilizers: soy establishes a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria already present in the soil.
Since most of the Italian soils have not hosted soy for several years, it is essential to inoculate the bacterium during the sowing phase. For this, liquid or pasty inoculums are used on peat and graphite carrier which are mixed with the seed, out of direct light and with the addition of small amounts of water.
Varieties of soy
The variety is chosen based on the sowing area.
Among the early varieties we can mention: Eiko (Agroqualità), Ascasubi (SIS), Bahia (SIS), Nikko (Agroqualità).
Among the medium-late varieties we can mention: Buenos (CGS), Adonai (Sivam), Celina PZO (Apsovsementi), PR92B63 (Pioneer), Demetra (Syngenta), Hiroko (Agroqualità), Blancas (SIS), Atlantic (Renk Venturoli) , Dekabig (Agroquality).
Green soy, cultivation
Green soy is not onevarietyof soy! It is a completely different botanical species. Thereyellow soywe talked about in this article is the botanical speciesGlycine maxwhile thegreen soyit is still a legume but of the speciesVigna radiata. Green soy is also known as mung bean and its cultivation dates back to 3500 years ago. The classic canned bean sprouts are produced with green soybeans. For all information: Green soy or mung bean.